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How are data calculated in reports?

The graphs and tables show the percent of students who reported positive experiences with a particular condition. In some cases, they also show the percentage point change in the share of students who rated the condition positively. 

For an experience to be considered positive, students have to:

  • “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” with a positive statement. For example, they must agree or strongly agree with the statement: “I feel accepted in this class.”

  • “Disagree” or “Strongly Disagree” with a negative statement. For example, they must disagree or strongly disagree with the statement: “People here would be surprised if I, or someone like me, did well in this class.”

All questions are asked on 6-points scales with the options: Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Somewhat Disagree, Somewhat Agree, Agree, and Strongly Agree.

Composite scores for each learning condition are weighted means of the individual item scores. For example, if scores on three items were 20%, 30%, and 40%, then the composite score of those three items would be 30%, assuming the same number of students answered each item. If twice as many students answered item 1 (20%), then that question would be weighted more heavily and the composite score would be 28%.

When data are missing because a student was absent or chose not to answer, their previous responses are carried forward (or “imputed”) to ensure that changes are only shown when students’ responses actually changed—not just because of who happened to respond to a particular survey. See What do we do with missing data (when students skip a survey)

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